Echinacea
Last updated: November 27, 2020

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Wrap yourself up in warm clothes, or you might catch a cold! If winter is the season you most dread, know that you are not alone. Many people spend this period of the year with a cold. While this viral infectious disease isn’t a real threat to young and healthy individuals, it can become a real pain to deal with. So, can you do anything to prevent it?

Plants of the genus Echinacea (commonly known as coneflowers) have been shown to activate specific mechanisms of the defense system. These properties could reduce the number of colds we face per year, although the real immunomodulatory power of this plant is still very much debated. Are you eager to learn more about it?

Key Facts

  • Echinacea is a genus of plants with medicinal properties.
  • Supplements containing Echinacea purpurea could help prevent and fight off the common cold.
  • You should consider a series of critical aspects before purchasing any echinacea product. These include your potential dietary restrictions and the origin of the plant, among others.

Our Selection: The Best Echinacea Supplements on the Canadian Market

To help you make the right purchase, we have selected some of the most popular echinacea products currently available out there. These articles are manufactured by reputable and responsible brands, whose goal is to provide high-quality supplements to their customers. In any case, please keep in mind that these products are not suitable for minors without authorization from your pediatrician.

Best Echinacea EPO-BOOST Supplement

With this supplement you will naturally stimulate your EPO production while increasing your body’s oxygen carrying capacity. With echinacea, dandelion root, iron, anti-inflammatory properties, and antioxidants EPO-BOOST performance and endurance. Get supercharged athletic performance with all the natural materials your body needs. Boosting iron, EPO production, red blood cell nutrients, and antioxidants, every batch is certified to be free of banned substances.

Furthermore, this brand is 100% committed to developing and marketing science-based innovative nutrition products with uncompromising high standards in their USA based, FDA-registered high-tech production facility.

Best Echinacea Liquid Extract

Nowadays, the versatility of liquid supplements has allowed them to grow in popularity. Herb Pharm’s echinacea root extract is made from organically grown plants from the brand’s own farm in Oregon. It is alcohol-free, vegan-friendly, and non-GMO. Simply add 40 drops to your favorite beverage and reap the benefits of this potent genus.

Their golden echinacea formula is easily absorbed by the human body. This manufacturer never uses synthetic solvents. They extract each herb’s phytochemicals as they exist in the plant and respect their natural balance.

Best Echinacea Supplement Overall

This manufacturer is a reputable American brand, and its echinacea capsules are incredibly popular among supplement enthusiasts. The bottle contains 100 capsules, each with 400 milligrams of echinacea purpurea powder. Manufactured in the United States, this non-GMO product is free of allergens such as soy, lactose, and gluten.

This is a traditional therapy for colds and flu. And this item is mad from echinacea angustifolia (root) equivalent to 1000 mg of narrow-leaf echinacea. Additionally, it is very well priced and has up to 3 months supply in one pack.

Best Budget-Friendly Echinacea Supplement

 

If you’re looking to get the best bang for your buck, these echinacea softgels by Jamieson are an excellent option. At just C$0.16 per unit, it is the most affordable product in our selection. Each capsule contains 4,000 milligrams of raw echinacea purpurea herb to boost your immune system during the colder months of the year.

Subsequently, this raw echinacea purpurea supplement helps fight and shorten the duration of colds and flu. Also providing the highest potency of echinacea in just one small capsule per day. This product has been pharmaceutically tested to guarantee full potency and clinical purity.

Best Echinacea Tea

Finally, we bring you this option. Tea is a very important part of many cultures. And this naturally caffeine free herbal tea mildly minty, with a twist of citrus, is a great addition if you enjoy drinking this beverage. And one of its most important values is that it supports the immune system and helps fight unwanted flu viruses.

Each tea bag contains organic purple coneflower herb, organic purple coneflower root and organic narrow-leaf echinacea. You will also find nonmedicinal ingredients such as: organic West Indian lemongrass leaf and orgcanic spearmint leaf.

Shopping Guide: Everything You Should Know About Echinacea

Echinacea is a plant genus composed of ten different species, some of which have medicinal properties. Their actual effectiveness is very much a subject of discussion. On the one hand, phytotherapy experts defend their benefits on the immune system, while controlled clinical studies reveal much more modest results.

Mujer con resfriado

Echinacea supplements are primarily used to prevent the common cold.
(Source: Racorn: 42088012/ 123rf.com)

What is echinacea exactly?

The term echinacea (Echinacea) refers to a genus of herbaceous plants (commonly known as herbs) originating from eastern North America. While there are various species within this plant genus, three stand out for their medicinal properties (1, 2).

Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida are the plants capable of influencing the immune system and fighting viruses and fungi. When you hear the term “echinacea”, it is generally referring to one of these three varieties, as described below:

  • Echinacea purpurea: This is the most popular and frequently used species in medicinal preparations. This plant’s action is primarily immunomodulating; in other words, it regulates the function of the defenses. It is commonly found in remedies that claim to stimulate immunity or relieve cold symptoms (3).
  • Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea pallida: We have less information about these two varieties of echinacea. While studies have found antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity in these plants, they are not given the same immunomodulatory capacity as E. purpurea.

What properties does echinacea have?

The components with medicinal properties are located in the roots and the aerial part (stem, leaves, and flowers) of the plant. These include a large number of active molecules, such as polysaccharides, alkamides, and polyphenols. These complex composites are responsible for the immunomodulatory, antiseptic, and antioxidant effects of echinacea (1, 4):

Function Molecules Mechanisms
Immunomodulating Polysaccharides

Alkamides

Stimulation of the function of macrophages (pathogen-eating cells).

Increased production of cytokines (molecules that regulate immune function).

Improvement of the immune system’s response to infection.

Increase in the number of white blood cells.

Antiviral Glycoproteins

Chicoric acid

Activation of the immune system response against viruses.

Reduction of the number of viruses in vitro.

Inhibition of the growth of herpes virus (HSV-1) in vitro.

Protection against infection by influenza viruses (influenzavirus A), herpes, and stomatitis viruses.

Antifungal Polyacetylene derivatives

Polysaccharides

Growth inhibition of fungi of the genus Candida.

Protection against infection by fungi Candida and Listeria.

Anti-inflammatory Polysaccharides

Chlorogenic acid

Alkamides

Echinacosides

Reduction of inflammation and edema in tissues.

Inhibition of molecules related to inflammation.

Wound healing.

Antitumoral Alkenes Inhibition of tumor cell growth in vitro
Mosquitocide Alkamides Destruction of mosquito larvae
Antioxidant Echinacosides

Alkamides

Protection of the skin against UV rays.

Prevention of collagen destruction by free radicals.

The three species of echinacea contain different concentrations of these molecules, each plant therefore having distinct effects. E. purpurea doesn’t include any echinacosides (antioxidants), for instance. However, it is rich in alkamides, molecules that could stimulate the activity of the immune system against viruses and fungi.

Most echinacea preparations use E. purpurea, the best-known of all species. That being said, you can also purchase supplements that combine this plant with E. angustifolia and E. pallida to take advantage of all the benefits of the genus Echinacea. The effectiveness will vary from one product to the next, depending on the concentration of each herbaceous variety.

Is echinacea really effective?

There is a wide range of products based on echinacea. While the most popular use of this plant is as a supplement to alleviate colds, it can also help in treating a variety of other conditions. They are listed below (5):

  • Cold relief: This is undoubtedly the most popular supplement based on the genus Echinacea. As a single ingredient or in addition to others such as propolis, echinacea could stimulate defenses against the common cold (6).
  • Treatment of urinary tract infections: Echinacea products are also marketed as formulas that may prevent the occurrence of urinary tract infections such as cystitis.
  • Healing creams and ointments: The alleged skin-protecting activity of the plant has led brands to manufacture different preparations aimed at improving the appearance of scars and wounds. Echinacea is also included in anti-stretch mark and anti-sagging creams.
  • Wrinkle serums and gels: You can also find cosmetics containing echinacea. According to their manufacturers, these gels and serums have a potentially moisturizing and anti-wrinkle action (7).
  • Toothpaste and mouthwashes: Dental hygiene products that include echinacea extract may have anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties that would facilitate the healing of mouth ulcers and preserve gum health (8, 9).
  • Sore throat spray: Echinacea-based preparations are available to potentially relieve pharyngeal discomfort. Note that many of these products combine it with other plants like salvia.
  • Infusions for the symptoms of menopause: Women who appreciate natural remedies often turn to echinacea infusions to try to relieve the hot flushes produced by menopause (10).

These numerous benefits are very encouraging, but it is fair to ask ourselves how true they are. Phytotherapy is a discipline that uses products of plant origin to cure and prevent disease (11); experts in this medicinal system defend the unlimited potential of this plant. Clinical medicine, on the other hand, is much more suspicious and skeptical about echinacea (5, 6, 12, 13). You can compare its pros and cons in the following table:

Advantages
  • Natural remedy with low toxicity
  • It has demonstrated a positive influence in the prevention of the common cold
  • Wide variety of preparations (infusion, tablets, powder, gels, and creams)
  • Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and anti-tumor properties
  • Creams and gels may have a healing and anti-wrinkle activity
Disadvantages
  • It can present allergic reactions and side effects
  • The effectiveness varies greatly from one product to the next
  •  Most of the in vitro studies must be corroborated by other clinical trials

Clinical trials on echinacea have not been able to prove that this plant is truly effective for the treatment of most conditions. The common cold is the only exception. According to the Cochrane Library, echinacea shows “slightly positive” results in preventing it (6).

This is why you shouldn’t see this plant as a drug or as an alternative to medical treatment. While it is very popular in the field of phytotherapy, it cannot be prescribed as a conventional treatment for any disease until further studies confirm its effectiveness. In that regard, it is considered an herbal remedy (14).

Flores equinácea purpurea

Echinacea needs further study to standardize its dosage and assess its safety.
(Source: Meidinger: 115102076/ 123rf.com)

Is echinacea safe?

Echinacea is considered safe as long as you follow the instructions for a defined period of time, generally indicated on the supplement itself. Despite its natural origin, the plant may expose you to side effects that you need to take into account to avoid unwanted complications (14, 16):

Side effects: Echinacea-based supplements may cause gastrointestinal discomforts such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Fever, dizziness, numbness of the tongue, dry mouth, and body aches have also been reported. In very rare cases, they have been linked with the appearance of liver damage.

Allergies: There have been cases of allergic reactions to Echinacea preparations, generally in the form of rashes or skin eczema. Individuals who are already prone to allergies to other plant species (ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, or daisies) are most likely to develop a hypersensitivity reaction.

Poisoning: The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the need to keep levels of toxins (heavy metals and pesticides) within a safety margin for these products. Ingesting echinacea supplements from unreliable sources could expose you to contamination by lead, cadmium, or pesticides.

Interaction with hepatic passage medication: Echinacea is an herbal remedy metabolized in the liver and interacts with cytochrome P450, a vital protein system for numerous chemical reactions. Consult your doctor before supplementing if you are taking any treatment that relies on cytochrome P450, such as:

  • Cholesterol-lowering medication
  • Antibiotics
  • Estrogens (e.g. contraceptives)
  • Antihypertensive drugs
  • Antidepressants
  • Haloperidol
  • Propranolol

Interaction with treatments that regulate or alter the immune function: Due to the effects of echinacea on the immunity, its use is not advised with drugs that alter the defenses’ activity. If you use steroids or immunosuppressants such as tacrolimus or azathioprine, ask your doctor about the risks associated with the use of this plant.

Interaction with midazolam: Echinacea also appears to interfere slightly with the absorption of midazolam, a widely used sedative.

Surprisingly enough, this plant can also affect coffee metabolism (14). Individuals using this herbal remedy may eliminate caffeine from their body at a much slower rate than normal. As a result, this stimulant could build up in the organism, leading to nervousness, insomnia, trembling, and anxiety.

Aceites

E. purpurea is the most popular variety of the genus Echinacea.
(Source: Raths: 82270063/ 123rf.com)

Can children take echinacea?

Your local pharmacy may very well sell echinacea products designed for our little ones. Most of them are marketed for the treatment of colds in children aged two and over. However, there are doubts about the influence of certain echinacea compounds (such as alkamides) on children’s metabolism.

This is why some experts recommend that anyone under the age of 12 should take supplements that contain this plant (14, 16). The WHO goes a step further, warning that the use of echinacea-based preparations in minors isn’t recommended without the supervision of their pediatrician (17). Only a healthcare professional can decide the right dosage in these delicate situations.

It is important that you follow the official guidelines of the World Health Organization.

In that regard, we strongly advise you to consult your pediatrician before administering echinacea or any such nutritional supplement to your children. This also applies to pregnant and breastfeeding women for whom the safety of the plant has not been proven yet (14, 16).

Did you know that it is believed that the Native Americans used echinacea as an antidote against snake venom?

Buyer’s Guide

Unlike allopathic drugs, phytotherapy remedies such as echinacea are rarely subject to strict quality and safety controls. For this reason, you have to be particularly vigilant in choosing a healthy and safe supplement. In the following section, we will discuss shopping criteria that will help you make the right purchase:

Dietary Restrictions

Even though echinacea is a plant, it doesn’t mean all its supplements are suitable for you if you’re vegan or vegetarian. Tablets and capsules may contain animal gelatin. In that regard, we encourage you to check the label of any product for a vegan seal of approval to make sure you can take it.

In addition, you will need to look for a hypoallergenic supplement if you suffer from allergies or intolerance to lactose, gluten, soy, or any other ingredients. Unfortunately, you will notice that many echinacea products contain some type of allergen in their formulation. You can find one of these supplements in our selection above.

Flores

Echinacea has antiviral, antifungal, and antioxidant properties, among others.
(Source: Fotomem: 31445184/ 123rf.com)

Organic Origin

Whenever possible, you should opt for an echinacea product sourced from organic farming. This type of agriculture is much more environmentally friendly and minimizes the use of pesticides. Keep in mind that one of the leading problems with echinacea supplements is their potential contamination by pesticides, lead, or cadmium (18).

Additional Ingredients

Products combining echinacea with other supplements are fairly common today. This herbal remedy is generally mixed with other herbal formulations, although you can also find vitamins or probiotics. The table below will help you find the right product (19, 20, 21, 22, 23):

Preparation Potential benefits
Probiotics They maintain the balance of microbiota (beneficial bacteria).
Vitamin C and zinc They alleviate cold symptoms.
Salvia officinalis Anti-inflammatory and pain relief.

Relief of colic and diarrhea.

Remedy for the symptoms of menopause.

Royal jelly Source of vitamins and minerals.

Improvement of the immune function.

Ginger Relief of digestive symptoms (nausea and vomiting).
Propolis Antiseptic, antifungal, and antibacterial properties that boost the immune function.

Summary

Echinacea is a genus of medicinal plants that have been used since time immemorial to treat a variety of ailments. With the emergence of scientific research and clinical pharmacology, herbal remedies have given way to standardized forms of treatment and simpler administration.

However, phytotherapy still offers a space for echinacea in modern times. This plant could reduce the number of colds you suffer from every year. In the near future, new studies may allow us to truly take advantage of the potential of echinacea.

Did you find our guide on echinacea helpful and informative? Feel free to give us your opinion in the section below, and don’t forget to share this article on your social media!

(Featured Image Source: Raths: 31600655/ 123rf.com)

References (24)

1. Heras B de las, Fresno ÁMV del. Equinácea | Farmacia Profesional. Farm Prof [Internet]. 2005 [citado 2020 Mar 27];19(9):4.
Source

2. López Luengo MT. Equinácea. Offarm [Internet]. 2005;24:5.
Source

3. Saeidnia S, Manayi A, Vazirian M. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods. Pharmacogn Rev [Internet]. 2015 Jan 1 [citado 2020 Mar 25];9(17):63.
Source

4. Barnes J, Anderson LA, Gibbons S, Phillipson JD. Echinacea species ( Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties. J Pharm Pharmacol [Internet]. 2005 [citado 2020 Mar 27];57(8):929–54.
Source

5. Barrett B. Medicinal properties of Echinacea: A critical review [Internet]. Vol. 10, Phytomedicine. Urban und Fischer Verlag Jena; 2003 [citado 2020 Mar 20]. p. 66–86.
Source

6. Karsch-Völk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, Bauer R, Ardjomand-Woelkart K, Linde K. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2014 Feb 20 [citado 2020 Mar 23];2014(2).
Source

7. Yotsawimonwat S, Rattanadechsakul J, Rattanadechsakul P, Okonogi S. Skin improvement and stability of Echinacea purpurea dermatological formulations. Int J Cosmet Sci [Internet]. 2010 Oct [citado 2020 Mar 28];32(5):340–6.
Source

8. Khozeimeh F, Saberi Z, Tavangar A, Badi FF. Effect of Herbal Echinacea on Recurrent Minor Oral Aphthous Ulcer. Open Dent J [Internet]. 2018 Aug 31 [citado 2020 Mar 28];12(1):567–71.
Source

9. Safarabadi M, Ghaznavi-Rad E, Pakniyat A, Rezaie K, Jadidi A. Comparing the effect of echinacea and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the microbial flora of intubated patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res [Internet]. 2017 [citado 2020 Mar 28];22(6):481.
Source

10. Mahady GB, Parrot J, Lee C, Yun GS, Dan A. Botanical dietary supplement use in peri- and postmenopausal women. Menopause [Internet]. 2003 Jan [citado 2020 Mar 28];10(1):65–72.
Source

11. Cañigueral S. Vila R VB. ¿Qué es Fitoterapia? – SEFIT [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 25].
Source

12. Colalto C. What phytotherapy needs: Evidence-based guidelines for better clinical practice. Phyther Res [Internet]. 2018 Mar 1 [citado 2020 Mar 25];32(3):413–25.
Source

13. Fürst R, Zündorf I. Evidence-Based Phytotherapy in Europe: Where Do We Stand? Planta Med [Internet]. 2015 Apr 29 [citado 2020 Mar 25];81(12/13):962–7.
Source

14. Echinacea: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 28].
Source

15. Equinácea pálida, raíz. Monografía online de ESCOP, 2018 – SEFIT [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 29].
Source

16. Echinacea Uses, Side Effects & Warnings – Drugs.com [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 25].
Source

17. World Health Organization. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants – Volume 1: Herba Echinaceae Purpureae [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 29].
Source

18. Echinacea: The genus Echinacea – Google Books [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 29].
Source

19. Markowiak P, Ślizewska K. Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. Vol. 9, Nutrients. MDPI AG; 2017.
Source

20. Wintergerst ES, Maggini S, Hornig DH. Immune-enhancing role of Vitamin C and zinc and effect on clinical conditions [Internet]. Vol. 50, Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2006 [citado 2020 Mar 19]. p. 85–94.
Source

21. Fratellone PM, Tsimis F, Fratellone G. Apitherapy Products for Medicinal Use. J Altern Complement Med [Internet]. 2016 Dec 1 [citado 2020 Mar 23];22(12):1020–2.
Source

22. Ghorbani A, Esmaeilizadeh M. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components. J Tradit Complement Med [Internet]. 2017 Oct 1 [citado 2020 Mar 29];7(4):433–40.
Source

23. Bode A, Dong Z. The Amazing and Mighty Ginger. In: Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects: Second Edition [Internet]. CRC Press; 2011 [citado 2020 Mar 23]. p. 131–56.
Source

24. Lead poisoning and health. Saudi Med J [Internet]. 2013 [citado 2020 Mar 29];34(10):1090–1.
Source

Why you can trust me?

Artículo de revisión
Heras B de las, Fresno ÁMV del. Equinácea | Farmacia Profesional. Farm Prof [Internet]. 2005 [citado 2020 Mar 27];19(9):4.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
López Luengo MT. Equinácea. Offarm [Internet]. 2005;24:5.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Saeidnia S, Manayi A, Vazirian M. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods. Pharmacogn Rev [Internet]. 2015 Jan 1 [citado 2020 Mar 25];9(17):63.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Barnes J, Anderson LA, Gibbons S, Phillipson JD. Echinacea species ( Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties. J Pharm Pharmacol [Internet]. 2005 [citado 2020 Mar 27];57(8):929–54.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Barrett B. Medicinal properties of Echinacea: A critical review [Internet]. Vol. 10, Phytomedicine. Urban und Fischer Verlag Jena; 2003 [citado 2020 Mar 20]. p. 66–86.
Go to source
Biblioteca cochrane
Karsch-Völk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, Bauer R, Ardjomand-Woelkart K, Linde K. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2014 Feb 20 [citado 2020 Mar 23];2014(2).
Go to source
Yotsawimonwat S, Rattanadechsakul J, Rattanadechsakul P, Okonogi S. Skin improvement and stability of Echinacea purpurea dermatological formulations. Int J Cosmet Sci [Internet]. 2010 Oct [citado 2020 Mar 28];32(5):340–6.
Go to source
Estudio en humanos
Khozeimeh F, Saberi Z, Tavangar A, Badi FF. Effect of Herbal Echinacea on Recurrent Minor Oral Aphthous Ulcer. Open Dent J [Internet]. 2018 Aug 31 [citado 2020 Mar 28];12(1):567–71.
Go to source
Estudio en humanos
Safarabadi M, Ghaznavi-Rad E, Pakniyat A, Rezaie K, Jadidi A. Comparing the effect of echinacea and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the microbial flora of intubated patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res [Internet]. 2017 [citado 2020 Mar 28];22(6):481.
Go to source
Estudio científico
Mahady GB, Parrot J, Lee C, Yun GS, Dan A. Botanical dietary supplement use in peri- and postmenopausal women. Menopause [Internet]. 2003 Jan [citado 2020 Mar 28];10(1):65–72.
Go to source
Web oficial sefit
Cañigueral S. Vila R VB. ¿Qué es Fitoterapia? – SEFIT [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 25].
Go to source
Artículo de discusión
Colalto C. What phytotherapy needs: Evidence-based guidelines for better clinical practice. Phyther Res [Internet]. 2018 Mar 1 [citado 2020 Mar 25];32(3):413–25.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Fürst R, Zündorf I. Evidence-Based Phytotherapy in Europe: Where Do We Stand? Planta Med [Internet]. 2015 Apr 29 [citado 2020 Mar 25];81(12/13):962–7.
Go to source
Web oficial
Echinacea: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 28].
Go to source
Web oficial sefit
Equinácea pálida, raíz. Monografía online de ESCOP, 2018 – SEFIT [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 29].
Go to source
Web oficial
Echinacea Uses, Side Effects & Warnings – Drugs.com [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 25].
Go to source
Guía Organización Mundial de la Salud
World Health Organization. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants – Volume 1: Herba Echinaceae Purpureae [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 29].
Go to source
Libro online
Echinacea: The genus Echinacea – Google Books [Internet]. [citado 2020 Mar 29].
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Markowiak P, Ślizewska K. Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. Vol. 9, Nutrients. MDPI AG; 2017.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Wintergerst ES, Maggini S, Hornig DH. Immune-enhancing role of Vitamin C and zinc and effect on clinical conditions [Internet]. Vol. 50, Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2006 [citado 2020 Mar 19]. p. 85–94.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Fratellone PM, Tsimis F, Fratellone G. Apitherapy Products for Medicinal Use. J Altern Complement Med [Internet]. 2016 Dec 1 [citado 2020 Mar 23];22(12):1020–2.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Ghorbani A, Esmaeilizadeh M. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components. J Tradit Complement Med [Internet]. 2017 Oct 1 [citado 2020 Mar 29];7(4):433–40.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Bode A, Dong Z. The Amazing and Mighty Ginger. In: Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects: Second Edition [Internet]. CRC Press; 2011 [citado 2020 Mar 23]. p. 131–56.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Lead poisoning and health. Saudi Med J [Internet]. 2013 [citado 2020 Mar 29];34(10):1090–1.
Go to source
Reviews